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September 22, 2014
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Diggin’ the seeds

Artichoke seeds are the earliest seeds I put into a starting medium. They were started in early January, because they need to grow as much as possible before being placed outside, where they can be exposed to temperatures below 50º for at least 500 hours. However, they need to be brought indoors when nighttime temperatures drop too low. Winters here are too cold for artichoke plants to survive more than one season.
TRR photo by Fritz Mayer

By Fritz Mayer

In some years, the weather is warm enough in March that the fence around my garden can be inspected and repaired in anticipation of the upcoming gardening season. But this year, with snow still piled high, the garden gate has not even been opened yet, so garden activities thus far have been limited to starting seeds indoors.

The biggest challenge with starting seeds indoors is getting enough light to the seedlings once they emerge. A bright sunny window will sometimes do, but most windows aren’t sunny enough for a long enough time, and space in front of them is limited.

I met the challenge of light by building incubation shelves out of two-by-fours and other wood to make a series of four shelves, with two, four-foot fluorescent light fixtures that hold a total of four 40-watt tubes suspended over each shelf.

The height of the lights is adjustable, so the distance from the plants can be varied as the seedlings grow, and the lights can be maintained at about three or four inches above the tops of the plants. Plants grown under these conditions will still need to be hardened before going outside indefinitely, which means they will have to be introduced to the full strength of the sun somewhat gradually. But plants grown in this manner will be much healthier, bigger and more mature than plants grown with insufficient light.

The next major challenge with starting seeds indoors is heat. With heating and energy costs soaring over the past years, many people no longer heat their homes as warmly as in the past, and for some seeds that’s not a problem. Lettuce seeds, for instance, will easily germinate in temperatures as low as 50ºF. But many seeds are not so accommodating.

Tomato and pepper seeds, for instance, prefer soil temperatures in the range of 75ºF or higher to germinate. Seedling mats were created to raise the temperature of soil anywhere from 15ºF to 20ºF above the ambient temperature. Seedling mats are generally designed to accommodate two or four flats, which are the plastic trays that hold pots that hold the seedlings. A seedling mat placed under one flat will also provide heat to any flats that are located above the first flat, and so multiple flats can be heated with a single matt.

Another condition that needs to be controlled in seed starting is the amount of moisture in the potting soil or growing medium. Most seeds require moist soil to germinate but don’t like soil that is soggy. I use flats that have no holes in the bottom and can be filled with about half an inch of water. The water will be drawn up by the growing medium in the pots, which do have holes in the bottom.